Not all courses described in the Course and Program Catalogue are offered each year. For a list of course offerings in 2021-2022, please consult the class search website.

The following conventions are used for course numbering:

- 010-099 represent non-degree level courses
- 100-699 represent undergraduate degree level courses
- 700-999 represent graduate degree level courses

## Course search

### 71 Results

#### PHYS 115.3: Physics and the Universe

Provides the first part of an introduction to physics. Topics include force, energy, momentum and collisions, torque and angular momentum, electric and magnetic fields, electric currents and circuits. Some applications of physics in technology and the health sciences are also discussed.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours and 1.5 Practicum/Lab hours and 1 Tutorial hours**Prerequisite(s):** Physics 30 or PHYS 90; and (Mathematics B30 and C30; or Foundations of Mathematics 30; or Pre-Calculus 30).

**Note:** Students with credit for PHYS 111 or 121 may not take this course for credit. Students may only obtain credit for one of PHYS 115 or PHYS 155 or PHYS 156.

#### PHYS 117.3: Physics for the Life Sciences

Introduces students to aspects of physics which are of particular relevance for the health and life sciences. This course can be used as the second part of an introduction to physics. Topics include fluid mechanics, oscillations and waves, thermal physics, optics, quantum physics, and nuclear physics. Emphasis is placed on bio-medical applications of physics.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours and 1.5 Practicum/Lab hours and 1 Tutorial hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 115.

**Note:** Students with credit for PHYS 111 or 121 may not take this course for credit. Students may only obtain credit for one of PHYS 117 or PHYS 125.

#### PHYS 125.3: Physics and Technology

Introduces students to aspects of physics with an emphasis on applications in technology and the physical sciences. This course can be used as the second part of an introduction to physics for students in the physical sciences or as a science elective for engineering students. Topics include fluid mechanics, oscillations and waves, temperature and ideal gas law, optics, special relativity, quantum physics, and nuclear physics.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours and 1.5 Practicum/Lab hours and 1 Tutorial hours**Prerequisite(s):** MATH 110, MATH 123, or MATH 176; PHYS 115 or GE 124.

**Note:** Students with credit for PHYS 111 or 121 may not take this course for credit. Students may only obtain credit for one of PHYS 117 or PHYS 125.

#### PHYS 152.1: Introduction to Atoms and Nuclei for Engineering

Provides a brief introduction to quantum physics, atomic physics and nuclear physics for students of engineering. Topics include evidence for wave-particle duality of photons and electrons, blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, line spectra, atomic models, nuclear models, radioactivity, nuclear fission and fusion.

**Weekly hours:**
1.5 Lecture hours and 1.5 Practicum/Lab hours**Restriction(s):** Restricted to students in the College of Engineering.

**Prerequisite(s):** Physics 30 or PHYS 90; and (Mathematics B30 and C30; or Foundations of Mathematics 30; or PreCalculus 30).

**Prerequisite(s) or Corequisite(s):** GE 102.

#### PHYS 155.3: Introduction to Electricity and Magnetism

Begins with an introduction to electricity: elementary electric charge, Coulomb's law, concepts of electric field and electrostatic potential, work, energy and capacitance, and dielectrics. The second part of the class is devoted to circuit analysis: voltage, current, resistance, power, Ohm's law, DC series/parallel circuits, Kirchhoff's laws, circuits with capacitors and R-C transients. The third part of the class focuses on concepts of electromagnetism: magnetic field and magnetic flux, forces acting on a charge and current carrying conductor, Faraday law, inductance and RL and RC transients.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours and 1.5 Practicum/Lab hours**Prerequisite(s):** GE 124 (taken) and MATH 123 (taken).

**Note:** Students can have credit for only one of PHYS 115 or PHYS 155. Students with credit for EP 155 may not take PHYS 155 for credit. EP 155 was last offered in 2004. PHYS 155 is a required course for students in the College of Engineering. Engineering students who have previously taken PHYS 115 must take PHYS 155 and will not receive credit for PHYS 115 toward their B.E.

#### PHYS 156.3: Electromagnetism and Waves for Engineering

Provides an introduction to electromagnetism, oscillations and waves. Topics include electric fields and potentials, electric conductivities, magnetic fields, Lorentz force, inductance, superposition and interference of waves, electromagnetic waves.

**Weekly hours:**
1.5 Lecture hours and 1.5 Practicum/Lab hours**Restriction(s):** Restricted to students in the College of Engineering.

**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 152 and GE 102 and MATH 133.

**Note:** Students with credit for PHYS 155 or PHYS 115 will not receive credit for this course.

#### PHYS 223.3: Mechanics I

An introduction to classical mechanics of single-particle systems using Newtonian, Lagrangian, and Hamiltonian methods. Applications include linear and non-linear oscillations and gravitation.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 115 or GE 124; MATH 223 or 225 or 276.

**Prerequisite(s) or Corequisite(s):** MATH 224 or 226 or 238.

#### PHYS 230.1: Electricity and Magnetism Laboratory

This laboratory course explores basic elements of electric circuits and electronics through experiments. Students will also learn how to measure magnetic fields through inductance and Hall probes. There will be five experiments and students will need 1.5 hours per experiment. For each experiment there will also be a 1 hour lecture.

**Weekly hours:**
0.4 Lecture hours and 0.6 Practicum/Lab hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 117 or PHYS 125

**Note:** Students with credit for EP 229 may not take this course for credit.

#### PHYS 231.1: Optics Laboratory

A laboratory course that explores geometric optics and wave optics through experiments. Topics include image formation with mirrors and lenses, diffraction and interference patterns, and polarization. There will be five experiments and students will need 1.5 hours per experiment. For each experiment there will also be a 1 hour lecture.

**Weekly hours:**
0.4 Lecture hours and 0.6 Practicum/Lab hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 117 or PHYS 125.

**Note:** Students with credit for EP 225 may not take this course for credit.

#### PHYS 252.3: Foundations of Modern Physics

Introduces Special Relativity and the foundations of quantum mechanics. Topics in relativity include Lorentz transformations, time dilation, length contraction, space-time diagrams, relativistic addition of velocities, and the relativistic definitions of energy and momentum. Topics in Quantum Mechanics include quantization of energy levels, wave-particle duality, and the tunnel effect.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 115 or GE 124

**Prerequisite(s) or Corequisite(s):** MATH 104, MATH 110, MATH 121, MATH 123, MATH 125, or MATH 176.

**Note:** Students can have credit for only one of PHYS 251 and 252.

#### PHYS 255.3: Concepts of Radiation Physics

Introduces the essential radiation physics concepts of relevance for nuclear energy, radiation therapy, radiation protection and medical imaging professionals. Topics include basic constituents of matter; mass-energy equivalence; atomic mass unit; relativistic mass; de Broglie wavelength; Compton wavelength; excited states and radiation; nuclear stability and radioactive decay; radioactive disintegration laws; activation analysis; energetics of nuclear decays and reactions; binding energy and separation energies; nuclear fission and nuclear fusion; interaction of radiation with matter; charged particle interactions: range and stopping power; photon attenuation: photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production; neutron interactions: elastic and inelastic scattering, capture, nuclear fission; neutron attenuation. Further topics include the physics of nuclear reactors; chain reactions; criticality of a reactor; elements of radiation protection: radiation units, quality factor and equivalent dose.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** 36 credit units at the university level including PHYS 115 or GE 122 or GE 124.

**Note:** Students with credit for PHYS 352 may not receive credit for this course. This course was labeled PHYS 352 until 2014.

#### PHYS 298.3: Special Topics

Offered occasionally by visiting faculty and in other special situations. Students interested in these courses should contact the department for more information.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

#### PHYS 299.6: Special Topics

Offered occasionally by visiting faculty and in other special situations. Students interested in these courses should contact the department for more information.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

#### PHYS 322.3: Introduction to Atmospheric Science and Meteorology

An introduction to the processes underlying observed weather phenomena. Topics include thermodynamic processes; stability and convection; radiation and heat budget. The dynamics of the atmosphere and its circulation are described, and related to synoptic meteorology. Weather forecasting is discussed. There are projects on weather observation and forecasting.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** MATH 223, 225 or 276; and (PHYS 117) or (PHYS 125), or (GE 125 and PHYS 155).

#### PHYS 323.3: Mechanics II

Continues the study of the classical mechanics of single-particle, multi-particle, and continuous systems in Newtonian, Lagrangian, and Hamiltonian methods. Applications include motion in a central force, non-inertial reference frames, rigid bodies, coupled oscillations, and fluids.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 223

#### PHYS 356.3: Intermediate Electromagnetism

Vector analysis, electrostatics, electric fields in matter, magnetostatics and magnetic fields in matter. Electrodynamics: Faraday's law of induction. Displacement current and the Ampere-Maxwell equation. Maxwell's equations in differential and integral form.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** EP 202 or EP 229 or PHYS 230.

**Prerequisite(s) or Corequisite(s):** MATH 331.

**Note:** Students with credit for EP 356 may not take PHYS 356 for credit. EP 356 was last offered in 2003.

#### PHYS 371.3: Statistical and Thermal Physics

Following a brief introduction to basic probability concepts the course applies statistical ideas to systems of particles in equilibrium so as to develop the basic notions of statistical mechanics. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects are discussed and illustrated in detail. Topics covered include partition functions, specific heats of molecules, effusion, quantum statistics of ideal gases, systems of interacting particles and chemical equilibrium.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s) or Corequisite(s):** PHYS 383.

#### PHYS 383.3: Quantum Mechanics I

The Schrodinger equation and its implications are discussed for several important quantum systems, including the quantum harmonic oscillator and one-electron atoms. Further topics include barrier-penetration, angular momentum in quantum mechanics, spin, and time-independent perturbation theory. The tutorial will develop problem solving skills and techniques using modern tools.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours and 1 Tutorial hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 252

**Prerequisite(s) or Corequisite(s):** MATH 331

**Note:** Students with credit for PHYS 381 will not receive credit for this course.

#### PHYS 391.3: CaNoRock Canada Norway Student Sounding Rocket Course

A field course held at the Andoya Space Centre in Andenes, Norway. Students will assemble scientific instruments, test these instruments, collect the data remotely from the rocket's telemetry systems during the rocket's flight, and analyse and present the interpreted data.

**Prerequisite(s):** Successful completion of 45 credit units and permission of the department.

**Note:** This course has costs in addition to tuition fees.

#### PHYS 398.3: Special Topics

Offered occasionally by visiting faculty and in other special situations to cover, in depth, topics that are not thoroughly covered in regularly offered courses.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Seminar/Discussion hours

#### PHYS 399.6: Special Topics

Offered occasionally by visiting faculty and in other special situations to cover, in depth, topics that are not thoroughly covered in regularly offered courses.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Seminar/Discussion hours

#### PHYS 402.3: Techniques of Theoretical Physics

Designed to develop those mathematical skills that are required for solving physical problems. Emphasis is placed on the various initial value and boundary value problems occurring in physics and engineering. This course requires that students do a large number of homework problems.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 383; PHYS 356; MATH 331, MATH 339 and MATH 379.

#### PHYS 403.3: Topics in Theoretical Physics

Some special techniques of mathematical physics are dealt with in detail. The subjects covered include integral equations, calculus of variation, and the application of group theory to physical problems.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 356; PHYS 383; MATH 164 (formerly MATH 264) or MATH 266.

#### PHYS 404.3: Techniques of Experimental Physics

Intended to make the student familiar with a variety of modern techniques in experimental physics including physical properties of materials and their use in the laboratory, radiation sources and radiation detection, vacuum techniques and cryogenics.

**Weekly hours:**
1 Lecture hours and 7 Practicum/Lab hours**Prerequisite(s):** STAT 241 or 245 or GE 210.

#### PHYS 405.0: Professional Internship l

Internship students register in this zero-credit-unit course for the first four-month installment of the internship placement. This course is graded on a Pass/Fail basis.

**Prerequisite(s):**Permission of the department; professional internship placement with a sponsoring employer.

#### PHYS 406.0: Professional Internship ll

Internship students register in this zero-credit-unit course for the second four-month installment of the internship placement. This course is graded on a Pass/Fail basis.

**Prerequisite(s):**PHYS 405

#### PHYS 407.0: Professional Internship lll

Internship students register in this zero-credit-unit course for the third four-month installment of the internship placement. This course is graded on a Pass/Fail basis.

**Prerequisite(s):**PHYS 406

#### PHYS 408.0: Professional Internship lV

Internship students register in this zero-credit-unit course for the fourth four-month installment of the internship placement. This course is graded on a Pass/Fail basis.

**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 407

#### PHYS 452.3: Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics

An introduction to the physics of the nucleus and of the fundamental particles and their interactions. Topics in nuclear physics include nuclear phenomenology, radioactive decay, nuclear reactions; nuclear models: semi-empirical mass formula, shell model, collective models, the deuteron and the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Topics in particle physics include strong and electroweak interactions; global and local symmetries of the weak and strong interactions; the neutral Kaons and CP violation; Feynman diagrams; the Standard Model: quarks, gluons and colour; decay and reaction probabilities; hadron production; meson and baryon masses; charmonium; asymptotic freedom; neutrino oscillations.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 383.

#### PHYS 453.2: Modern Physics Laboratory IV

This laboratory course focuses on advanced nuclear techniques, including coincidence measurements and neutron activation analysis. There will be five experiments and students will need 3 hours per experiment. For each experiment there will also be a 2 hour lecture.

**Weekly hours:**
0.8 Lecture hours and 1.2 Practicum/Lab hours**Prerequisite(s):** EP 353 or PHYS 383

#### PHYS 456.3: Electricity and Magnetism II

This course provides an advanced treatment of electromagnetic waves in matter, electromagnetic radiation, and relativistic electrodynamics.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 356.

**Note:** First offered in 2014-2015. Students may receive credit for only one of PHYS 816 or PHYS 456.

#### PHYS 461.3: Physics of Plasmas and Fluids

Provides students with an exposure to basic ideas of fluid and plasma dynamics as used in various applications, including ocean and atmosphere motions, space and laboratory plasmas, and controlled thermonuclear fusion. A unified discussion of neutral fluids and plasmas is emphasized whenever possible. Topics include fluid (moment) models, motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields, oscillations and waves in neutral fluids and plasmas, plasma properties and equilibria.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 356 and PHYS 371.

#### PHYS 470.3: Solid State Physics

Covers perturbation theory, crystal structure and binding of solids, lattice vibrations, electrons in crystaline lattices, magnetic and transport properties of solids, and superconductivity.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 371 and PHYS 383.

#### PHYS 471.3: Synchrotron Physics

Provides an introduction to the physics of synchrotrons and their applications. The first part introduces accelerator physics, synchrotron radiation and its sources, and beamline optics. The second part discusses X-ray spectroscopy with synchrotrons as well as elastic and inelastic scattering.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 356 and PHYS 383.

#### PHYS 472.3: Particle Accelerator Physics and Synchrotron Radiation

There are over 30,000 particle accelerators in use worldwide in research, industry and medicine. An introduction to the physics and engineering of accelerators will be given with an emphasis on synchrotron light sources. Topics include electron optics, electromagnets, Special Relativity, Radio Frequency waves and synchrotron radiation. Laboratory classes will also be conducted including computer labs and electron accelerator labs at the Canadian Light Source.

**Prerequisite(s):** EP 253 and PHYS 356

**Note:** Students are required to attend the after-hours laboratory classes at the CLS and complete an online safety induction to satisfactorily complete this course.

#### PHYS 473.3: High Energy Particle Accelerators for Physics Research

CERN is the world’s premier particle accelerator laboratory with research achievements such as the discovery of the Higgs Boson particle and the invention of the World Wide Web. The mission of CERN is Science for Peace and their goal is to build and operate the best possible particle accelerators to conduct fundamental and applied research. This course taught at CERN during a few weeks in the summer term is designed to help students understand how accelerators can be used for their research in a very broad field from high energy particle physics to medical applications. Dr. Boland will combine with experts from CERN to lecture on the physics of particle accelerators with emphasis on how these impact the research that can be conducted with them in the fields of high energy particle and nuclear physics.

**Prerequisite(s):** EP 253.3 and PHYS 356.3

**Note:** This is a taught abroad course that will be delivered at CERN, Switzerland, over two weeks during the summer term.

**Note:** There are costs in addition to tuition fees. Please contact the department for information.

#### PHYS 481.3: Quantum Mechanics II

Linear vector spaces and quantum mechanics; hermitian and unitary linear operators; Schrodinger equation in various representations; the operator method as applied to the harmonic oscillator and to angular momentum eigenvalues; the spin statistics theorem; minimal coupling of electromagnetic fields; time independent perturbation theory and applications.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 383; and MATH 164 (formerly MATH 264) or MATH 266; and EP 320 or MATH 339.

#### PHYS 482.3: Quantum Mechanics III

Continues PHYS 481 and begins with an extensive discussion of time dependence in quantum mechanics. Exactly solvable problems such as spin-magnetic resonance are used to illustrate the time-dependent perturbation series. Applications include emission and absorption of radiation, multipole selection rules, and electron scattering from atoms and nuclei. Further topics discussed in detail are symmetry in quantum mechanics, rotation matrices and applications, many particle systems, collision theory, and variational methods including Hartree-Fock theory.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 481.

**Note(s):** Students may receive credit for only one of PHYS 886 or PHYS 482.

#### PHYS 490.0: Physics Seminars

Students are required to attend both Departmental seminars and special student seminars. In each case the seminar material is intended to introduce students to some of the new developments in Physics and Engineering Physics.

**Weekly hours:**
1 Seminar/Discussion hours**Prerequisite(s):** Minimum 9 credit units of 300-level PHYS or EP courses.**Note:** Required for Engineering Physics, Physics Honours and Physics Four-year programs.

#### PHYS 491.3: Physics Research Project

The student will work on an advanced research project in Physics under the supervision of a faculty member in the department specializing in the selected area. The project will be evaluated by a committee (including the supervisor) on the basis of oral and written reports.

**Weekly hours:**
6 Practicum/Lab hours**Permission of the department required.**

**Prerequisite(s):** Registration in the final-year Physic Honours program.

**Note:** Students who wish to do an undergraduate research project in T1 and/or T2 must notify the department by February 28 of the previous academic year. Students can normally do only one research project.

#### PHYS 493.6: Extended Research Project in Physics

The student will work on a research project in physics under the supervision of a faculty member. The project will be evaluated by a committee (including the supervisor) on the basis of two oral and two written reports.

**Weekly hours:**
6 Practicum/Lab hours**Permission of the department required.**

**Note:**Students who wish to do an undergraduate research project in T1 and/or T2 must notify the department by February 28 of the previous academic year. Students can normally do only one research project.

#### PHYS 498.3: Special Topics

Offered occasionally by visiting faculty and in other special situations to cover, in depth, topics that are not thoroughly covered in regularly offered courses.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Seminar/Discussion hours

#### PHYS 499.6: Special Topics

**Weekly hours:**
3 Seminar/Discussion hours

#### PHYS 811.3: Classical Mechanics

Lagrange's equation of Motion, Hamilton formulation, Phase-space considerations, Liouville theorem, Poisson brackets, Action-angle variables, Hamilton-Jacobi Equation, Integrable systems, Canonical Perturbation theory, KAM theorem, Phase-space mapping, Henon, Standard and tangent Maps, Local and Global Chaos, Dissipative systems.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

#### PHYS 812.3: Electromagnetic Theory

Topics include boundary-value problems of electrostatics and magnetostatics, time varying fields, radiation and multipole fields.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 816.3 or equivalent.

#### PHYS 816.3: Electrodynamics

This course provides advanced treatment of electromagnetic waves in matter, radiation and relativistic electrodynamics.

**Prerequisite(s):** An undergraduate Electromagnetics course or equivalent.

**Note(s):** Students may receive credit for only one of PHYS 816 or PHYS 456.

#### PHYS 821.3: Introduction to Aeronomy

The structure and composition of the Earth's atmosphere; mean circulation, tides and wave motions; the major photochemical processes and their implications; the physical processes of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere; and experimental methods.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Note:** Instruction is given jointly by members of the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies.

#### PHYS 822.3: Radio Physics of Upper Atmosphere

Deals with the application of radio methods to studies of the upper atmosphere. Topics discussed include the magneto-ionic theory; scattering of radio waves by meteors and aurora, scattering, generation and absorption of radio waves in the solar and terrestrial atmospheres, solar-terrestrial-relations and the methods of radio astronomy applied to upper atmospheric measurements.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

#### PHYS 827.3: Atmospheric Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer

Solar and terrestrial radiation; absorption, emission and scattering in terrestrial and planetary atmospheres; radiative transfer; remote sensing of atmospheric properties; climate models (greenhouse effect, atmospheric evolution).

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 821 or permission of the instructor.

#### PHYS 831.3: Methods of Experimental Synchrotron Science

This is an interdisciplinary special topic course targeted for graduate students with interest in synchrotron radiation and synchrotron science. The following topics are normally covered: spectroscopy with microfocussed beams of soft x-rays and infrared; x-ray diffraction studies of the electron and molecular structure of crystallizable proteins; near edge absorption spectroscopy; fine structure of extended x-ray absorption spectra.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

#### PHYS 833.3: General Relativity and Gravitation

Development of the physical ideas and mathematical skills leading to general relativity as a theory of gravitation; solutions of the Einstein field equations and observational tests of general relativity; applications to black holes and cosmological models.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

#### PHYS 851.3: Introductory Nuclear Physics

Introduction to electromagnetic and weak interactions as relevant to nuclear and particle physics. Symmetries in sub-atomic physics, weak decays, selection rules and electromagnetic processes.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 482 and 452.

#### PHYS 861.3: Plasma Physics

Discusses the basic concepts of plasma physics. Reading of assigned literature in plasma physics is required.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

#### PHYS 862.3: Plasma Waves I

Dispersion relations are derived for small amplitude waves in plasmas, both in the presence and in the absence of magnetic fields. The topics treated in this course include the kinetic model of the plasma, Landau damping, instabilities, the effect of inhomogeneities or wave propagation, and the effect of oscillating external fields on waves and instabilities.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 861.

#### PHYS 865.3: Plasma Transport Properties and Diagnostic Techniques

Provides a kinetic theory treatment of plasma transport phenomena - conductivity, diffusion, heat flow - and the relaxation times for particle deflection, momentum transfer, energy relaxation. Various plasma measurement techniques are then discussed, including the use of microwaves, probes, laser scattering and particle energy analyzers.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 861.

#### PHYS 871.3: Condensed Matter Physics I

A graduate level introductory course in condensed matter physics, focusing on the properties of crystalline solids. The course will cover crystal structure and symmetries, electronic properties and bandstructure, semiconductors, binding of solids and lattice vibrations, and optical properties of solids. Modern computational and experimental methods will be introduced as appropriate.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

: Permission of the instructor required.

#### PHYS 873.3: Statistical Mechanics

As part of basic training of graduate students, this core course aims to reinforce the student's understanding of the fundamental concepts and techniques of statistical mechanics, and to advance the student's general knowledge of phase transitions and critical phenomena. The course will not only broaden the student's general knowledge of statistical physics, but will also expose the student to a variety of current research topics. In this course, three basic ensembles (microcanonical, canonical, grandcanonical) are first reviewed for both classical and quantum-mechanical statistical mechanics, and the classical limit of ideal gas is discussed. The quantum-mechanical collective phenomena in Fermi and Bose systems are examined. Finally, the techniques for analysing quantum critical phenomena and the Landau theory of phase transition are studied in detail, along with their applications to various physical systems.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Prerequisite(s):** An undergraduate course in Statistical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics.

#### PHYS 883.3: Quantum Mechanics

Concepts in advanced quantum mechanics. Topics include perturbation theory, relativistic corrections, scattering theory, second quantization, non-relativistic QED, and selected applications to subatomic, atomic, molecular, or solid-state systems.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

#### PHYS 884.3: Quantum Field Theory

Fundamental concepts in quantum field theory. Topics include relativistic field equations; canonical and path integral quantization; symmetries, conservation laws, and symmetry breaking; interacting field theories relevant to condensed matter and subatomic physics; tree-level processes.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

#### PHYS 886.3: Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

The course continues the study of topics in advanced quantum mechanics with a focus on relativistic quantum mechanics: Quantization of electromagnetic fields, photon emission and absorption, scattering of photons, Klein-Gordon equation, Dirac equation, non-relativistic limit of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, relativistic corrections to the Schrodinger equation, quantization of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields, and scattering cross sections in quantum electrodynamics.

**Prerequisite(s):** PHYS 883.3 or PHYS 481.3 or equivalent.

**Note(s):** Students may receive credit for only one of PHYS 886 or PHYS 482.

#### PHYS 891.3: Selected Topics in Condensed Matter Physics

Advanced topics are selected to aid graduate students with their research. Depending on student interests the following subjects may be covered: electronic structure of advanced materials, high temperature superconductors, and biomaterials. Experimental methods in solid state physics and material science. Nanoscale physics, surface phenomena and soft condensed matter physics.

**Permission of instructor required.**

**Note:** Students may take this course more than once for credit, provided the topic covered in each offering differs substantially. Students must consult the Department to ensure that the topics covered are different.

#### PHYS 893.3: Selected Topics in Physics and Engineering Physics

Advanced topics in Physics and Engineering Physics selected to aid graduate students with their research. Consists of assigned readings in texts and/or scientific journals, related discussions, and additional lectures.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Permission of instructor required.**

**Note:** Students may take this course more than once for credit, provided the topic covered in each offering differs substantially. Students must consult the Department to ensure that the topics covered are different.

#### PHYS 894.3: Selected Topics in Theoretical Physics

Advanced topics in theoretical physics selected to aid graduate students with their research. Consists of assigned readings in texts and/or scientific journals, related discussions, and additional lectures.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Permission of instructor required.**

**Note:** Students may take this course more than once for credit, provided the topic covered in each offering differs substantially. Students must consult the Department to ensure that the topics covered are different.

#### PHYS 895.3: Selected Topics in Subatomic Physics

Advanced topics in subatomic physics selected to aid graduate students with their research. Consists of assigned readings in texts and/or scientific journals, related discussions, and additional lectures.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Permission of instructor required.**

**Note:** Students may take this course more than once for credit, provided the topic covered in each offering differs substantially. Students must consult the Department to ensure that the topics covered are different.

#### PHYS 897.3: Selected Topics in Space and Atmospheric Physics

Advanced topics in space and atmospheric physics selected to aid graduate students with their research. Consists of assigned readings in texts and/or scientific journals, related discussions, and additional lectures.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours**Permission of instructor required.**

**Note:** Students may take this course more than once for credit, provided the topic covered in each offering differs substantially. Students must consult the Department to ensure that the topics covered are different.

#### PHYS 898.3: Special Topics

Consists of assigned reading in texts and scientific journals on which the students report; additional lectures by the professor in charge are also given. Depending on the interests of the students, the topics are in the field of nuclear, or theoretical or upper atmospheric physics.

**Weekly hours:**
3 Lecture hours

#### PHYS 899.6: Special Topics

Offered occasionally in special situations. Students interested in these courses should contact the department for more information.

#### PHYS 90.3: Foundations of Physics

Physics 90 is designed as a preparatory access course for students who were unable to access, or need to review, 30-level physics and physical science curricula. Content focuses on core concepts, terminology, problem-solving strategies, and laboratory skills foundational to be successful in post-secondary physics and related degree paths (e.g. science, engineering, mathematics, health sciences).

**Prerequisite(s):** Grade 12 Diploma or equivalent

**Note:** Physics 90 fulfills prerequisite requirements for PHYS 115, though Physics 90 is not directly equivalent to Physics 30. PHYS 90 is a not-for-credit course (0 credit units) and does not contribute to the course requirements for a university degree.

#### PHYS 990.N/A: Seminar

Papers on recent developments in Physics and Engineering Physics are given. Candidates for the Master's degree and for the Ph.D. degree in this department are required to participate.

#### PHYS 994.N/A: Research

Students writing a Master's thesis in physics must register for this course.

#### PHYS 996.N/A: Research

Students writing a Ph.D. thesis in physics must register for this course.